By Aleš Prokop, Rakesh K. Bajpai, Mark E. Zappi
Algae supply power to supply renewable chemical compounds and fuels utilizing solar power and carbon dioxide from surroundings or in flue gases whereas concurrently lowering the new release of greenhouse gases. on account that those could be grown on marginal lands with micronutrients and macronutrients usually found in waste streams, algae-based chemical compounds and fuels don't compete with meals. nonetheless large-scale construction of algae-based fuels and chemical substances faces massive technological and reasonably-priced demanding situations and it's going to by means of necessity require a biorefinery process in which the entire attainable algal elements are switched over into value-added compounds. the current sequence on algal biorefineries represents a discussion board for reporting the state-of-the-art of alternative applied sciences in addition to the most recent advances during this box. the amount II of this sequence enhances the amount I by way of the present state-of-the-art. various chapters during this quantity handle different matters starting from genetically modifies algae to new items to life-cycle research of algal products.
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Additional info for Algal Biorefineries: Volume 2: Products and Refinery Design
Similar genetic modifications are being considered for industrially-useful strains of microalgae to enable their use to produce commodity fuels and chemicals, especially to improve productivity or efficiency to overcome economic and other factors that have hindered development of the technology (USDOE 2010). Here too, progress in the field is attested by the significant number of recently-published review articles summarizing applicable advanced biotechnology strategies for strain improvement (Rosenberg et al.
However, one can have the expectation in most cases that microorganisms chosen for commercial uses at large-scale will be nonpathogenic and will not have other traits which might cause adverse environmental or health effects. S. Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology Overview Regulatory frameworks have been developed in the United States and other countries to provide oversight over biotechnology and its commercial uses and to ensure that these potential environmental impacts are assessed. Because the earliest debates over biotechnology regulatory and public policy were often contentious or even confrontational, the perception developed within the industry that such government regulations were difficult to navigate, and that this, coupled with negative public opinion, placed significant barriers against the possible use of GMOs in industrial or agricultural applications, particularly those involving open environment use.
2013), summarizing methods for production of succinic acid, and more general reviews from Adrio and Demain (2010), Chen and Nielsen (2013) and Buschke et al. (2013). The different strategies being pursued for the improvement of microorganisms for industrial purposes have been exhaustively summarized in these review articles. A brief summary is presented in Table 1. J. g. directed evolution, codon optimization) to increase productivity of desired biosynthetic pathways Introduce new enzymatic activities to enable use of different feedstocks or compounds as energy sources for the production organism Introduce two or more genes encoding heterologous enzymes, to create entirely new biosynthetic pathways for desired products Improve carbon flow into a desired pathway by knocking out genes encoding enzymes in competing pathways to improve carbon flow into a desired pathway, and creation of entirely new pathways by introducing genes encoding multiple enzymes.
Algal Biorefineries: Volume 2: Products and Refinery Design by Aleš Prokop, Rakesh K. Bajpai, Mark E. Zappi