By Jürgen Parisi, Stefan C. Müller, Walter Zimmermann
Options of nonlinear physics are utilized to more and more examine disciplines. With this quantity, the editors supply a range of articles on nonlinear subject matters in growth, starting from physics and chemistry to biology and a few purposes of social technology. The e-book covers quantum optics, electron crystallization, mobile or circulate styles in fluids and in granular media, organic platforms, and the keep an eye on of mind buildings through neuronal excitation. Chemical styles are checked out either in bulk strategies and on surfaces in heterogeneous platforms. From ordinary buildings, the authors flip to the extra advanced habit in biology and physics, comparable to hydrodynamical turbulence, low-dimensional dynamics in solid-state physics, and gravity.
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Extra resources for A perspective look at nonlinear media : from physics to biology and social sciences
Fig. 16). A peculiar case was found for impact of slow multicharged fullerenes on clean metal surfaces, where the potential MCI energy will not be released as PE (cf. fig. 17) but rather used for fast projectile fragmentation . 17. 15 20 j conventional KE threshold Electron emission yield vs. impact velocity for multicharged fullerene ions hitting a clean Au surface (data from [79)). As a final remark in this short review on PE we state that the potential ion energy can cause both neutral and ionized target particles to be ejected from an insulator surface epotential sputtering" - PS, cf.
Bombardment of certain classes of insulator surfaces by slow ions may cause sputtering and secondary ion emission, which cannot be explained by the elastic transfer of kinetic projectile energy to the target particles, but rather by deposition of some part of the projectile potential energy. Investigation of "potential sputtering" effects has so far mainly been carried out by means of the quartz microbalance technique which determines the mass loss from thin polycrystalline insulator films having been deposited onto the face of a quartz oscillator crystal (cf.
The probability W 0 that no electron is emitted cannot be determined directly, but may practically be neglected for yields 'Y ;:::: 3. This ES technique requires ion fluxes at the target surface of less than I 0 4 projectiles/s and is therefore ideally suited for comparably tiny MCI beams from EBIS and EBIT (see above). Additionally, charging-up of insulator surfaces under HCI bombardment will completely be avoided [53, 54]. Furthermore, since MCI-induced potential electron emission depends strongly on the MCI charge state, their respective ES spectra can be utilized to distinguish between different MCI species with equal or nearly equal charge-to-mass ratios present in "mixed" ion beams .
A perspective look at nonlinear media : from physics to biology and social sciences by Jürgen Parisi, Stefan C. Müller, Walter Zimmermann