By Edward Winter
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Extra info for A Chessplaying Astronomer
Fig. 16). A peculiar case was found for impact of slow multicharged fullerenes on clean metal surfaces, where the potential MCI energy will not be released as PE (cf. fig. 17) but rather used for fast projectile fragmentation . 17. 15 20 j conventional KE threshold Electron emission yield vs. impact velocity for multicharged fullerene ions hitting a clean Au surface (data from [79)). As a final remark in this short review on PE we state that the potential ion energy can cause both neutral and ionized target particles to be ejected from an insulator surface epotential sputtering" - PS, cf.
Bombardment of certain classes of insulator surfaces by slow ions may cause sputtering and secondary ion emission, which cannot be explained by the elastic transfer of kinetic projectile energy to the target particles, but rather by deposition of some part of the projectile potential energy. Investigation of "potential sputtering" effects has so far mainly been carried out by means of the quartz microbalance technique which determines the mass loss from thin polycrystalline insulator films having been deposited onto the face of a quartz oscillator crystal (cf.
The probability W 0 that no electron is emitted cannot be determined directly, but may practically be neglected for yields 'Y ;:::: 3. This ES technique requires ion fluxes at the target surface of less than I 0 4 projectiles/s and is therefore ideally suited for comparably tiny MCI beams from EBIS and EBIT (see above). Additionally, charging-up of insulator surfaces under HCI bombardment will completely be avoided [53, 54]. Furthermore, since MCI-induced potential electron emission depends strongly on the MCI charge state, their respective ES spectra can be utilized to distinguish between different MCI species with equal or nearly equal charge-to-mass ratios present in "mixed" ion beams .
A Chessplaying Astronomer by Edward Winter