By Barnette D. W.

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Types of institutions located at different levels Levels Formal institutions Informal institutions International International trade role that impose trade barriers Property rights, labor laws Movement restriction on agricultural produce Political affinities which influence levels of co-operation Patron-client relationships Rules for share-cropping National Local Source: DFID (2001) Organizations In contrast to institution, an organization is a legally constituted entity, which has an identifiable membership, some goals to achieve to benefit the members, a representative governing body and rules of decision-making (ISNAR, 1994).

A lack of particular types of infrastructure is considered a core dimension of poverty (DFID, 1999). For example, without a good road network, it becomes difficult to sell products to markets especially in remote areas, which discourages farmers from adopting productive technologies. In addition, farmers remain poor due to the practicing of low-level production technologies. 1. Sustainable livelihoods framework (adapted from DFID, 1999). ) useful for livelihood are derived (Scoones, 1998; DFID, 1999).

Cross-checking and validation of data and information generated through participatory methods were done the following ways: • • • Validation was pursued by approaching different local groups and individuals either separately or together; Different participatory methods used, in combination, was utilized to test and verify data, and Participant checking was also used to test data with the same set of people who generate original information. Livelihood Analysis, Research Framework and Objectives 39 However, detail methods of study used for individual study site are elaborated in each chapter.

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3 - Trees in polyhedral maps by Barnette D. W.

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